There are several key aspects that make each router stand out on the basis of speed, performance, range, features etc. Mostly depending on what a user needs from a router, they can be placed in multiple categories such as dual or single band, hardware and much more. Range is an important feature in every router that depends on multiple factors such as frequency, antennas, positioning, standard, and hardware. If you have a small to medium house, then range wouldn’t matter all that much for you but users with larger houses might want to consider stronger routers or the idea of setting up a wireless access point. You can also utilize boosters that strengthen the WiFi signal and give it the added juice it needs to connect your devices.
Now since the range mainly depends on the wireless access point, things to keep in mind are; which standard the router is i.e. 802.11a/b/g/n, the transmission strength of the antennas, and obstructions such as walls or other devices around the router. Generally, 802.11b/g routers support a range of up to 150 Ft indoors and 300 Ft outdoors. However, older 802.11a routers that ran on 5GHz frequency had one third less range as compared to the 2GHz frequency. 802.11n devices have twice the range as 802.11b/g routers. And since 802.11a uses a higher signaling frequency as compared to b/g/n, it is more susceptible to obstructions. Obstructions usually includes things such as brick walls or if your router is placed behind a cupboard etc. Which is why positioning is an important part in setting up a house router. Make sure that the router is placed in a central position where it can easily transmit signals all over the house. But if you have a router placed behind a wall or inside a cupboard, then you might face interference issues where devices might disconnect and web surfing will be slow or streams will buffer.
Due to these reasons, businesses and larger buildings have multiple access points in order to increase the range of the WiFi network. The cost to maintain these larger networks becomes expensive the more the range increases. Like mentioned earlier, since 2.4GHz frequency is commonly used in more devices such as radio, microwaves, phones etc. it can cause more interference. Due to this reason, many tech savvy users usually change their channels and look for those where there’s the least possible interference. Single band routers only work on the 2.4GHz frequency which dual band routers work on both 2.4 and 5GHz. A tri band router works on one 2.4GHz frequency and two 5GHz bands and allocates traffic accordingly.
Range also depends on the positioning of the antennas, which could be either internal or external. Directional antennas can be pointed towards a certain area which increases the range of the signals being transmitted. Some antennas can be detached and then readjusted according to your liking. There are also omnidirectional antennas that boost signals all over the place.